Luxor was the capital of the New Kingdom, Luxor for centuries was the most important city in Egypt. Crossing the Nile one reaches the left bank of Luxor where the richest and most famous necropolis in the World are situated. Deir El Bahari one of the most splendid temples in Luxor. it was built by Queen Hatshepsut around 1500 BC.
This beautiful temple was built on the east bank of Luxor by Amenhotep III, ’’The Magnificent’ ’With his wife Queen Tiy, whom he dearly loved, he ruled Egypt during the peaceful and stable 18thDynasty. The Temple was dedicated to the Theban triad :the great god Amon-Ra, his wife Mut, and their son Khonsu. Luxor temple suffered some damage in the reign of Amenhotep’s son of Akhenaten, when the name and figure of Amon were erased,but it was reconstructed in the reigns of Tutankhamon and Horemhab.In the 19th Dynasty,Ramesses II carried out major work there, particularly when he constructed a new court and entrance.
This is the great national monument of Egypt which has no equal. It is not a single temple, but temple within temple, shrine within shrine, where almost all the Pharaohs of Luxor particularly of the New Kingdom, wished to record their names and deeds for posterity. Through most of the structures were built in honour of Amon-Ra,his consort Mut and son Khonsu,there were numerous shrines within the complex dedicated to what might be called ‘guest deities’ like Ptah of Memphis and Osiris of Abydos.
The necropolis lies on the western bank of the Nile at Luxor. Its monuments include a series of mortuary temples built by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom, royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, and hundreds of tombs of noblemen that extend from the Dra Abu el Naga in the north to the Asasif in the south.
Although it is known as the ‘city of the dead’, the necropolis was once a populated and busy community.
These two somewhat weathered seated statues greet visitors to Luxor. They are all that remain of what was once the largest mortuary temple in the necropolis, that of AmenhotepIII.It is somewhat difficult,today, to imagine a temple which, with gardens and lake, extendedfrom the Ramesseum to MedinetHabu.
The mortuary temple of Hatshepsut is the most beautiful in the necropolis, and the queen herself is one of the most colourful figures in ancient Egyptian History.
This temple was built by SetiI in reverent memory of his father, Ramses I, who ruled for little more than a year, and, of course, for his own cult.
RAMSES II left a greater mark in history than many other accomplished and successful pharaohs, such as Ahmos (who won the war of liberation against the Hyksos) and Thutmose III (who won a great empire). The reasin that Ramses II had one of the longest reigns in Egyptian history.
MedinetHabu is the name given to a large group of buildings that were started in the 18thDaynasty, but on which construction continued through Roamn times. The main feature of the complex is the mortuary temple of RamsesIII.
Deep in the limestone hills to the north-west Deir el Bahri is a remote valley. Here the Pharaohs of the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties chose their eternal resting place.
ThutmoseI was the first pharaoh to excavate a tomb in the barren valley, and to construct his mortuary temple at the edge of the verdant valley. In this way, he believed, his cult could be continued while his resting place remained secret and safe from robbers.
This valley where some of the queens and royal children of the 19th and 20th Dynasties were buried .There are over twenty tombs; many are unfinished and entirely with decoration. The most beautiful, that of Nefertari, beloved wife of Ramses II is not open to visitors .However, we are fortunate that there is another tomb in the same style and with similar representation.
Hundreds of tombs of the nobles were constructed in the foothills of the mountains at the edge of the western desert. The most famous are those at Sheikh Abd el Kurna,west of Ramesseum. The majority of tombs were designed in two parts: a wide court leading to a hall that was sometimes supported by pillars or columns, and a long corridor to the rear leading to the offering shrine that had niches for the statue of the deceased. The walls were covered with a layer of whitewashed clay; this was painted. There are sculptured reliefs in only a few of the tombs. They shed a flood of light on life in the New Kingdom.
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